Colleges 2016

Colleges 2016

Statistics from the 2016 America’s Best Colleges 
by U.S. News & World Report for 2014-15 freshman class.

School % accepted total applicants number accepted % Asian-Am. in student body
Stanford 5.09 42,167 2,145 20
Harvard 5.96 34,295 2,045 19
Yale 6.30 30,932 1,950 17
Columbia 6.95 32,967 2,291 22
Princeton 7.44 26,641 1,983 21
MIT 7.88 18,356 1,447 25
U.S. Naval Academy 7.94 17,618 1,398 7
Juilliard School 8.43 2,385 201 13

Dropped from 30% in 1993 to 13% in 2015. Stop donating.

Brown 8.74 30,431 2,661 13
U. of Chicago 8.76 27,500 2,409 17*
CalTech 8.83 6,525 576 44
U.S. Military Academy 9.47 14,977 1,418 6
U. of Pennsylvania 10.37 35,866 3,718 20
Claremont McKenna 10.77 6,043 651 10*
Duke 11.41 31,523 3,596 21
Dartmouth 11.50 19,296 2,220 14
Pomona 12.19 7,727 942 13
Pitzer 13.02 4,324 563 6
Vanderbilt 13.09 29,518 3,865 10
Northwestern 13.11 33,674 4,416 17
Amherst 13.84 8,478 1,173 13
Cornell 14.19 43,037 6,105 17
Harvey Mudd 14.25 3,678 524 21
Bowdoin 14.87 6,953 1,034 6*
Johns Hopkins 15.02 23,877 3,587 20
Average 16.5%
*decrease from last year

9/22/16 Inside Higher Ed: “Pressure to Build the Class: 2016 Survey of Admissions Directors”
By Scott Jaschik
And in a potentially notable finding, a significant minority of college admissions directors now say (in contrast to past surveys but consistent with the views of many advocates for Asian-American applicants) that their colleges generally admit only Asian applicants with higher grades and test scores than other applicants.
A significant minority indicated that they believe Asian-American applicants are held to a higher standard generally, and that this is the case at their institutions.
Admissions Directors on Asian-American Applicants
Do you believe that some colleges are holding Asian-American applicants to higher standards?
Public 39% Yes     Private 42% Yes
At your college, do Asian-American applicants who are admitted generally have higher grades and test scores than other applicants?
Public 41% Yes     Private 30% Yes

9/12/16 WBUR: “How Wellesley Plans To Cut The High Suicide Rate For Asian-American Women”
By Tonya Mosley
As a senior at Wellesley College, Lily Luo would often spend her evenings traveling to Boston to talk out her fears and frustrations with other Asian-American women.
“It would take me hours to get there and get back,” Luo said, “but I got to a point in my life where I was like ‘I need this and I am going to make the time for my mental health.’ ”
Luo was participating in a research study called AWARE — Asian Women’s Action for Resilience and Empowerment — that’s part of a five-year study conducted by Boston University researcher Hyeouk Chris Hahm. Hahm, an associate social research professor, had been called on by the National Institutes of Health to study the mental health of second-generation Asian-American women.

8/30/16 The Cornell Daily Sun: “Cornell, Columbia Accused of Discriminating Against Asian American Students in College Admissions”
By Rebecca Even
The Asian American Coalition for Education lodged a complaint with Department of Education last Wednesday, accusing Cornell and Columbia University of discriminating against an Asian student in the admissions process.

Cornell, Columbia Accused of Discriminating Against Asian American Students in College Admissions

8/26/16 India West: “Coalition Seeks Probe into Alleged Discrimination Against Asian Americans by Ivy League Schools”
WASHINGTON — An Asian-American student has filed a complaint over being ‘unfairly’ rejected by Columbia University and Cornell University, prompting a coalition to seek a probe over allegedly discriminating against him and an Indian American.

8/25/16 Next Shark: “Asian American Student With 5.3 GPA Rejected From Ivy League Schools, Files Complaint”
By Editorial Staff
Hubert Zhao, a Chinese-American student from Orlando, Florida, filed a complaint against Cornell and Columbia University following the rejection of his application. The alleged reason: discrimination.

Asian American Student With 5.3 GPA Rejected From Ivy League Schools, Files Complaint

8/15/16 The Atlantic Magazine: “The Burden of Being Asian American on Campus; The arrival of Chinese international students comes at a cost to some”
by Julia Wang
When my father was a graduate student at Loyola University in Chicago, two distinct things marked his day: the “L” and instant noodles. It was 1998 in a studio apartment in Rogers Park below the Red Line. Every night, the sounds of the train woke him up. Every morning, he got up after a restless night and made himself some ramen. After those three years, he never wanted to look at instant noodles again.

7/17/16 Raw Story: “New court challenge to affirmative action involves Asian-American Harvard student”
Through his organization, the Project on Fair Representation, Abigail Fisher’s advisor, Edward Blum, is currently engaged in a lawsuit challenging Harvard University’s race-conscious admissions policy.
What is different about the Harvard lawsuit is that the lead plaintiff in the case is not a white student. The plaintiff is an Asian-American student.

6/29/16 Business Insider: “Asian-American student who filed a complaint about discrimination after being rejected from the Ivy League: ‘I feel disappointed’ in the Supreme Court”
by Abby Jackson
The US Supreme Court’s ruling in favor of affirmative action at the University of Texas at Austin last Thursday likely further validated the use of race in admissions policies around the country.
And for the Asian-American students and organizations who feel that discrimination runs deep within the college admissions process, the ruling has fueled dismay.
“I feel disappointed with the court and what they’re trying to do because I feel like they are just trying to avoid the issue of dealing with affirmative action right away,” Michael Wang, a rising senior at Williams College, told Business Insider.
As an Asian-American, Wang has a personal interest in the issue of affirmative action. With a perfect ACT score and 13 Advanced Placement courses under his belt, he applied to seven Ivy League universities and Stanford in 2013. After most of them rejected him, Wang filed a complaint with the US Department of Education, alleging that Yale, Stanford, and Princeton discriminated against him because of his race.

6/28/16 The Atlantic: “Asian Americans and the Future of Affirmative Action; The way members of the ‘model minority’ are treated in elite-college admissions could affect race-based standards moving forward”
by Alia Wong
In his new book, Earning Admission: Real Strategies for Getting Into Highly Selective Colleges, the strategist Greg Kaplan urges Asians not to identify as such on their applications. “Your child should decline to state her background if she identifies with a group that is overrepresented on campus even if her name suggests affiliation,” he advises parents, also referencing Jews. Such tips are increasingly common in the college-advising world; it’s not unusual for consultants, according to The Boston Globe, to urge students to “deemphasize the Asianness” in their resumes or avoid writing application essays about their immigrant parents “coming from Vietnam with $2 in a rickety boat and swimming away from sharks.”
It’s sad that this is what elite-college admissions have come to: a soul-deadening process that encourages students to distort their identities solely for the sake of getting in. But the rampant racism to which these pointers allude, if real, is even sadder. According to some activists, brilliant, accomplished, and well-rounded Asian students are consigned to gaming a system that’s rigged against them. Either that, or they have to prove themselves extra brilliant, extra accomplished, and extra well-rounded to ensure they’re on equal footing with non-Asian applicants. The premise is that affirmative action enables colleges and universities to discriminate against Asian applicants simply because there are so many of them on campus already.

6/16/16 USA Today College: “Asian-American representation in classrooms: The next battleground?”
By Grace Z. Li (Harvard University)
A growing movement of Asian-American activists is adding a new voice into claims of systematic racism at campuses nationwide.
From alleged racism against professors of color to calls for more Asian-American culture courses, the issues have resulted in protests and petitions at schools including Dartmouth College, Williams College, Cornell University, Stanford University and Northwestern University.
Asian-American representation in classrooms: The next battleground?

6/16 UCLA Daily Bruin: “Asian American activism on campus; an in-depth investigation”
by Kelly Yeo
There’s been no shortage of Asian-American news as of late.
Conservative commentator Ann Coulter referred to us as “Mandarins” last week, inciting furor online. This past winter, Chinese American groups rose up in a sea of protests seeking to reduce or eliminate punishment for Peter Liang, an Asian-American cop convicted of manslaughter in February regarding the killing of Akai Gurley, an unarmed black man. In addition, the second Asian American centered television show ever, Fresh off the Boat, was partly through its second season run. Despite all that, at UCLA, I’d heard or read nary a response to the Liang trial in particular from any of my friends, both those involved in culturally and ethnically oriented organizations or otherwise. Liang has since been sentenced to 800 hours of community service and five years probation – and no jail time.

6/3/16 WGBH News: “Asian American groups claim top Ivy League schools practice racial discrimination”
By Kirk Carapezza
Three Ivy League schools are alleged to have used racial quotas to limit the number of Asian American students admitted to their campuses. The Asian American Coalition for Education says Yale, Brown and Dartmouth have been doing this for at least a decade. The group recently filed a complaint with the federal government.

5/26/16 English East Day: “Chinese student beaten in possible hate crime”
Safety concerns were rising among Chinese students after a Chinese woman was brutally beaten in an possible hate crime last week in Tempe, Arizona.
Xiaolin Shi, an undergraduate at Arizona State University, said she was assaulted by a white woman on a train on the way home between 10:30 pm and 11 pm on May 20.
Kalie Rutledge, 22, began yelling slurs like “Bitch, go f—ing back to China” to Shi and her friend after they got on the train and talked in Chinese, Shi told China Daily.
She said the suspect aggressively approached them and continued berating them for a while. As they were about to get off the train at their stop, the suspect came at them and punched Shi in the face.
“I lost consciousness for a few seconds, and then I found myself on the ground with blood all over my face,” Shi said. Her friend was also attacked but didn’t sustain serious injuries.
Shi had a broken bone in her face and swelling to her eye. She said the doctor told her surgery might be necessary, though she was currently in stable condition.
The suspect was arrested by Tempe police that night on a charge of aggravated assault and then booked into Maricopa County Jail. According to Maricopa County court documents, Rutledge was released after an initial appearance on May 24, and is scheduled to appear for a preliminary hearing on May 31.
According to the website jail.com, Rutledge was arrested at least 10 times previously on charges including criminal damage, drug paraphernalia use or possession, disorderly conduct and violation of probation.
“It was 100 percent racial hatred, no other reason,” said Shi. “I don’t know her (Rutledge). I’ve never met her before.”
Four months ago in Tempe, another Chinese girl, Yue Jiang, also an international student at Arizona State, was shot dead by a white woman whose car bumped hers while Jiang was driving home from a shopping trip with her boyfriend.
No trial date has been set for Holly Davis, 32, the suspect in Jiang’s case, said Rebecca Wilder, spokeswoman for the Maricopa County District Attorney’s office, who declined to comment on both cases, saying they were pending.
Though police tried to ease fears among Chinese students telling them that Jiang’s case was a “random act of violence”, safety has been a top concern since the shooting.
“At least for a long while, we had been very cautious. Many students talked about buying a gun for protection,” said Kevin Cheng, a Chinese student at Arizona State. “The local Chinese set up a group on WeChat. Sometimes they give lectures on using firearms.”
He said racial tension was not rare where he lived, and he had similar experiences on campus, on the train and while attending an NBA game.
“We wish we could do something to change it, but unfortunately, it seems there’s little we can do but rally to make our voice heard,” Cheng said. “We are talking about a rally at the court when Jiang’s killer stands trial.”
To Christine Liu, a Chinese student at Arizona State who lived close to the location where Jiang was killed, there was not blatant racial prejudice.
“But I can feel the sense of hostility against Asians,” she said.

5/25/16 CBS MoneyWatch: “Are elite colleges biased against Asian Americans?”
By Aimee Picchi
Getting accepted by an Ivy League college can seem like a crapshoot, but a coalition of Asian-American organizations alleges that some elite schools are using a discriminatory process that hurts Asian-American applicants.
The complaint, filed by the Asian American Coalition for Education (AACE), claims that Brown, Yale and Dartmouth are relying on quotas to keep enrollment of Asian Americans to about 16 percent of their student bodies. “The situation is eerily reminiscent of the quota system the Ivy League schools maintained for Jews during the 1920s,” the complaint states.
America’s population of Asian Americans between ages 18 and 21 — the prime college years — has jumped from about 3 percent in 1990 to 5.1 percent in 2011, but enrollment of Asian-American students at elite colleges peaked in 1993 and then started declining, according to the complaint.

5/20/16 The Chronicle of High Education
by Peter Schmidt
Asian-American Groups Accuse Brown, Dartmouth, and Yale of Bias in Admissions
A long list of Asian-American groups plans on Monday to call for federal investigations of Brown University, Dartmouth College, and Yale University for alleged discrimination in admissions.

5/13/16 Inside Higher Education: “Stop Anti-Asian Bias: Whatever the Supreme Court says about affirmative action, it is time for elite colleges to stop favoring white applicants over Asian Americans”
By Hrishikesh Joshi
Any day now the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on Fisher v. University of Texas. The case concerns a lawsuit filed by Abigail Fisher, a white applicant who was denied admission to UT. Fisher argues that her race played a role in the admissions decision, and this, she claims, constituted a violation of her rights.
Yet one feature of modern college admissions practices in the United States that can often be overlooked in this discussion is that white applicants receive a significant boost relative to Asian-Americans. This is among the findings of a major study by Princeton sociologists Thomas J. Epenshade and Alexandria Walton Radford, who also observe that Hispanic and African-American applicants receive a boost relative to whites.

4/1/16 Harvard Gazette: “College admits 2,037; Record 39,041 applied to Class of 2020”
The College is admitting 2,037 applicants from a record pool of 39,041.
A record 14 percent of the admitted students are African-American, and 22.1 percent are Asian-American, also a record. Latinos are 12.7 percent after last year’s record 13.3 percent; Native Americans are 2.2 percent (1.5 percent last year); and Native Hawaiians are 0.4 percent (0.5 percent last year).
Women constitute 48.4 percent of the admitted students compared with 48 percent last year. About 15 percent of the students admitted to the class are first-generation.
About 13,600 students scored 700 or above on the SAT critical reading test; 15,700 scored 700 or above on the SAT math test; 13,600 scored 700 or higher on the SAT writing test; and 3,300 were ranked first in their high school classes.
College admits 2,037

April/May 2016 The Economist: “The long march from China to the Ivies: Brook Larmer discovers what Chinese students go through to get into top American universities”
by Brook Larmer
It is one of China’s curious contradictions that, even as the government tries to eradicate foreign influences from the country’s universities, the flood of Chinese students leaving for the West continues to rise. Over the past decade, the number of mainland Chinese students enrolled in American colleges and universities has nearly quintupled, from 62,523 in 2005 to 304,040 last year, according to the Institute of International Education. Many of these students are the sons and daughters of China’s rising elite, establishment families who can afford tuition fees of $60,000 a year for America’s top universities – and the tens of thousands of dollars needed to prepare for the transition. Even the daughter of Xi Jinping, China’s president and the man driving the campaign against foreign ideas, recently studied – under a pseudonym – at Harvard University.

3/7/16 Washington Post: “Another shocking racial epithet hurled at an Asian student at USC — this time accompanied by eggs”
By Michael E. Miller
When Ivan Tsang left his native Hong Kong to enroll at the University of Southern California, he was motivated by more than SoCal’s mild climate. More than his studies, even. He was looking for a place to belong. And on USC’s melting pot of a campus, Tsang thought he had found it.
“I chose USC for the sole purpose of escaping the reality of racism, hoping to settle in a much more contemporary and diverse community,” he wrote Sunday on Facebook.
“I guess I thought wrong.”
Tsang’s dream shattered around him Saturday night when a fellow USC student allegedly hurled eggs at Tsang and called him racist and homophobic slurs.

2/27/16 Harvard Magazine: “Overseers Petitioners Challenge Harvard Policies”
by John S. Rosenberg
As campaign announcements go, it was as splashy as could be: a page-one story in The New York Times of January 15, headlined “How Some Would Level the Playing Field: Free Harvard Degrees.” The article detailed a plan by five people to petition for slots on the annual ballot for Harvard’s Board of Overseers election under a common campaign theme, “Free Harvard, Fair Harvard.”
It then pivots to another point, drawing a substantive conclusion about admissions practices. It says, “…top officials at Harvard, Yale, Princeton and the other Ivy League schools today strongly deny the existence of ‘Asian quotas.’ But there exists powerful statistical evidence to the contrary.…Racial discrimination against Asian-American students has no place at Harvard University and must end.” [This claim is a subject of current litigation against Harvard; it is also an issue on which some members of the petition slate have expressed their conclusions—see discussion below.]

2/15/16 The Unz Review: “Meritocracy: Harvard PR vs. Factual Reality”
But the per capita enrollment for Asian-Americans of college-age has shown an almost continuous decline over the last twenty years, now being 60% lower than in 1995. One would think that an apparent drop in enrollment of some 60% would have at least raised questions at Harvard’s admissions office. Has Asian academic performance collapsed during these two decades? Are Asians no longer applying to Harvard in large numbers? I’d hope we can disregard the possibility of any anti-Asian bias in Harvard’s vaunted “holistic admissions methods,” enshrined as exemplary by the U.S. Supreme Court in its landmark Bakke decision.
Yet oddly enough, those dramatic changes at Harvard seem quite similar to what happened at most other elite colleges during that same period. Producing similar charts is just as easy, and nearly all of them show exactly the same pattern, sometimes even exhibiting a drop in Asian enrollment significantly greater than that at Harvard (though with Princeton being one of the very few exceptions). For example, here are the charts for Yale and Stanford:

1/14/16 New York Times: “How Some Would Level the Playing Field: Free Harvard Degrees”
By Stephanie Saul
Ron Unz, a conservative advocate, put together the slate of five candidates for the Board of Overseers at Harvard that is asking if the university ought to be tuition-free for undergraduates. Credit Jim Wilson/The New York Times
Should Harvard be free?
That is the provocative question posed by a slate of candidates running for the Board of Overseers at Harvard, which helps set strategy for the university. They say Harvard makes so much money from its $37.6 billion endowment that it should stop charging tuition to undergraduates.
But they have tied the notion to another, equally provocative question: Does Harvard shortchange Asian-Americans in admissions?
Their argument is that if Harvard were free, more highly qualified students from all backgrounds would apply, and the university would no longer have trouble balancing its class for racial or ethnic diversity — making sure, they say, that Asian-Americans do not lose out.

1/14/16 The College Fix: “Conservatives attempt a coup at Harvard by pledging free tuition, fairness for Asian Americans”
Asian-American groups suing Harvard for allegedly discriminating against their applicants have a new set of allies.
An “outsider” slate running for Harvard’s Board of Overseers is pledging to end tuition for undergraduates as well as treat Asian-American applicants by the same admissions standards as everyone else, The New York Times reports:

Conservatives attempt a coup at Harvard by pledging free tuition, fairness for Asian Americans

12/29/15 New York Post: “From NYC to Harvard: the war on Asian success”
by Betsy McCaughey
The outrage is that instead of embracing the example of these Asian families, school authorities and non-Asian parents want to rig the system to hold them back. It’s happening here in New York City, in suburban New Jersey and across the nation.

11/14/15 Complaint Against Yale University, Brown University, and Dartmouth College for Unlawful Discrimination Against Asian-American Applicants in the College Admission Processes
BY Asian American Coalition for Education
Executive Summary

Dear Asian-American Organization Leaders:

Each year, many Asian-American applicants with excellent extra-curricular activities,competition medals, extraordinary SAT scores, and high GPAs are unfairly rejected by Ivy League universities, who illegally use quotas, racially-differentiated standards and stereotypesto discriminate against Asian-American applicants. On average, Asian-American students have to score 140-450 points higher on SATexams than students of other races in order to attend America’s elite universities. Such discrimination is happening all over the nation to Michael Wang, Jian Li, Vijay Chokal-Ingam, many other Asian-American children, and possibly to a child you know.

To fight against such severe and widespread discrimination, in May 2015 we united 64 Asian-American organizations and jointly filed a civil rights complaint with the Departments of Education and Justice against Harvard University. As the largest joint action taken by Asian-American groups to oppose such discrimination, the complaint generated an enormous amount of media attention throughout the world and attracted broad-based support from many groups across America, including bipartisan support from members of the US House of Representatives.

Shockingly, more than 160 ideology-driven Asian-American organizations recently filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court, supporting race-based college admissions, which upholds such discrimination against Asian-American children.

On December 9 2015, the Supreme Court will hear Fisher vs. University of Texas and determine if race can be used in college admissions. Asian-American communities cannot afford to be silent, allowing those ideology-driven organizations to have louder voices, misrepresenting the fact that most Asian-American parents believe that race should NEVER be factors in college admissions. As a result, Asian American Coalition for Education calls for Asian-American organizations to unite and jointly file complaints with the Department of Education and the Department of Justice against Yale University, Brown University and Dartmouth College in protest of their discrimination against Asian-American applicants. This action will bring two major benefits.

1. It will lead to social and political pressure urging Ivy League universities to reduce their discrimination against Asian-American applicants. After the Department of Education started investigating Harvard in 1988, its admission rate of Asian-Americans jumped from 10.8% in 1988 to 16.1% in 1991. Similarly, after a few Asian-American students filed a complaint against Princeton since 2006, its admission rate of Asian Americans increased from 14.7% in 2007 to 21.9% in 2012 and 25.4% in 2014.

2. It will let the Supreme Court hear our strong voice, and become aware of the severe and widespread discrimination Asian-American children are suffering.

Please join this fight, to win this crucial battle for your own children, and for all Asian Americans!

Any political or non-political organization can join us! Doing so is protected by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees free speech and the right to petition the government to protect our right to equal treatment under the law.

Please review the Executive Summary and join us by filling out the online form to sign on the Complaint.

Thank you so much for your support and wish you a wonderful Thanksgiving holiday!

Asian American Coalition for Education

To learn more about AACE, please visit: http://asianamericanforeducation.org/en/home/
To support AACE, please donate to: http://asianamericanforeducation.org/en/donate/


11/10/2015 Daily Caller: “Why Is The University Of Missouri Racist Against Asian-Americans?”
by Jim Treacher
Most people have focused on the woman at the end of this video, who screams, “I need some muscle over here!” She’s trying to get rid of a student reporter in a public place, in front of cameras, which is pretty great because she’s a journalism professor.
But I’m more interested in how this angry mob treated the photographer, an Asian-American student. His name is Tim Tai, and he was just trying to do his job. He explained himself well, not that he should’ve had to: He was in a public place, and he was recording the event for posterity. He was exercising his First Amendment rights in the United States of America. He had as much right to be there as anybody else.
And yet he was swarmed and jostled and screamed at and taunted and threatened by a fascist mob. He was disrespected by angry, hostile people who tried to erase his lived experience. His feelings were utterly disregarded, and he was cruelly triggered again and again. His tormentors tried to shame him for being who he is.

Why Is The University Of Missouri Racist Against Asian-Americans?

11/4/15 NBC News: “More than 160 Asian-American Groups File Briefs in Support of Affirmative Action”
by Emil Guillermo
More than 160 Asian American and Pacific Islander groups have filed amicus briefs calling for the U.S. Supreme Court to uphold affirmative action policies at the University of Texas at Austin.

10/28/15 Harvard Crimson: “Months In, Some Students Still Skeptical of Admissions Lawsuit- Several Asian American student leaders are critical of the ongoing affirmative action case”
By Daphne C. Thompson
As the plaintiffs of a lawsuit against Harvard continue to allege that its admissions policies discriminate against Asian American applicants, some students have questioned the College’s transparency on the issue, but a group of Asian and Asian American student leaders on campus are still not convinced of the plaintiffs’ claims.

10/12/15 New York Times: “Hazing and Drinking Deaths at Asian-American Fraternities Raise Concerns”
By Winnie Hu
Syracuse University students trying to join Nu Alpha Phi, an Asian-American fraternity, were given demerits when they made mistakes during pledging, and a way to work them off.
There were push-ups and situps in the attic of the fraternity house, according to investigators and students. There were extended periods in a sitting position — knees bent, backs to the wall — that tested their physical strength and resolve. And on one frigid night in March, there were exercises outdoors in a park, with three pledges crawling and rolling in the snow with no gloves. One of them got frostbite on both hands and faced losing several fingers.

10/2/15 NJ.com: “Group contests findings that Princeton U. didn’t discriminate against Asian applicants”
by Cristina Rojas
Princeton — A group is disputing the findings of a federal report that found that Princeton University did not discriminate against Asian or Asian-American applicants.
The Asian American Coalition for Education called the report “shocking, disappointing and unconvincing.”

9/15/15 The Independent: “Baruch College Hazing death: 37 people charged over death of Asian American student in initiation ritual; The parents of the 19-year-old student have welcomed the charges”
by Andrew Buncombe
More than 30 people have been charged over the “hazing” death of a first year Asian American student who was died during a college’s rural retreat in Pennsylvania.

Comments are closed.

Recent Comments



%d bloggers like this: